Varus deformation in knee joint is one of the common symptoms caused by unicompartment knee osteoarthritis. Currently, several operations can be used for correcting such deformation, including high tibial osteotomy, unicondylar knee arthroplasty (UKA) and fibulectomy. UKA has been developed for over 60 years, with the advantage of normal knee kinematics restored, less incision, more bony tissue preserved and larger range of motion than total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Therefore, UKA has become a reliable method for treating unicompartment knee osteoarthritis. Fibulectomy is a new kind of surgical technique for treating varus deformation in knee joint, with the advantage of simple operation, low cost and fast recovery. At present, fibulectomy has been widely applied, but its treatment mechanism is still not clear. In this review, two clinical operations UKA and fibulectomy were summarized, and the possible mechanism of fibulectomy for treating unicompartment knee osteoarthritis was proposed from the viewpoint of biomechanics. The author hypothesized that reduction in lateral muscle force after fibulectomy would cause rebalance of the resultant joint moment, therefore, the change of joint contact position and the decrease in joint contact force might be the cause of fibulectomy to release the pain for knee osteoarthritis patients.