机体组织具有复杂的三维动态结构，且受到多种形式的作用力。细胞从细胞外基质（extracellular matrix, ECM）中感受力学刺激，ECM构建的力学微环境调控细胞不同生物学功能。制备可模拟机体组织ECM力学微环境的生物材料是生物力学领域研究的热点和难点之一。生物材料的不同理化性质赋予材料特定的力学性能，进而影响细胞行为和功能。本文结合2021年材料生物力学领域的最新文献，特别关注新型材料生物力学对细胞生物学行为的调控和在组织工程中的应用，并探讨材料生物力学研究领域的未来发展方向。
Tissue has a complex three-dimensional (3D) dynamic structure, and is affected by various forms of forces. Cells sense mechanical forces from extracellular matrix (ECM), and the mechanical micro-environment constructed by ECM regulates different biological functions of cells. To prepare biomaterials which can simulate the ECM mechanical micro-environment of tissues is one of the research hot spots and difficulties in biomechanical field. Different physical and chemical properties of biomaterials endow materials with specific mechanical properties, which further affect the behavior and function of cells. Based on the latest literature of biomechanics of materials in the year 2021, this study mainly focused on the role of novel mechanical biomaterials in regulating cell biological behavior and application in tissue engineering. The future development direction in the field of biomechanics of materials was also discussed.