Objectives To construct three-dimensional finite element model of lumbar spondylolysis, then to verify its validity by comparison of biomechanics in vitro. Methods According to the radiological data of a patient with lumbar spondylolysis, the bone and intervertebral disc of L4-S1 were reconstructed by Simpleware software. The lumbar attaching ligaments and articular capsule were added into simulating model by Ansys software. Finally, the three-dimensional finite element model of lumbar spondylolysis was simulated successfully, and validated by lumbar spondylolysis biomechanical experiment in vitro. Results The reconstruction of digital model is contained of the bones of lumbar spine which includes of vertebral cortical bone, cancellous bone, facet joint, pedicle, lamina, transverse process and spinous process,as well as annulus fibrosus, nucleus pulposus,superior and inferior end-plates. Besides, anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments, flavum ligament, supraspinal and interspinal ligaments and articular capsule of facet joint are also attached. The model consisted of 281,261 nodes and 661,150 elements. Imitation of spondylolysis is well done in this model. The validity of the model is verify by comparison of the results of biomechanics in vitro which involved in the trends under loading of stress/strain of L4 inferior facet process, L5 superior and inferior facet process, S1 superior facet process and the trend of stress/strain of lateral and medial L4 inferior facet process. Conclusions Lumbar spondylolysis is reconstructed to three-dimensional model using finite element analysis, and can be further used in the research of biomechanics of lumbar spondylolysis.